Treatment and Care


The importance of addressing gender inequality in efforts to end vertical transmission of HIV PDF Print E-mail
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AUTHOR: E. Ghanotakis, et al.
DATE: 2012
PUBLISHER: Journal of the International AIDS Society

This article examines the role that gender inequality plays in limiting vertical HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmatic progress. The authors highlight a growing body of evidence that suggests that gender inequality, including gender-based violence, is a key obstacle to better outcomes related to all four components of a comprehensive PMTCT programme. Effective community- and facility-based strategies to transform harmful gender norms and mitigate the impacts of gender inequality on HIV-related outcomes are emerging. The paper calls for greater implementation of comprehensive, gender transformative PMTCT programmes in order to eliminate vertical transmission of HIV.

Article can be accessed on-line here in PDF format.

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Gender Differences in the Risk of HIV Infection among Persons PDF Print E-mail
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AUTHOR: K.Z. Landman, J. Ostermann, J.A. Crump, A. Mgonja, M.K. Mayhood, D.K. Itemba, A.C. Tribble, E.M. Ndosi, H.Y. Chu, J.F. Shao, J.A. Bartlett, and N.M. Thielman
DATE: 2008
PUBLISHER: PLoS ONE 3(8): e3075

This article examines the association between the number of sexual partners and the risk of HIV seropositivity among men and women presenting for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in northern Tanzania. Among women presenting for VCT, the number of partners is strongly associated with rates of seropositivity; however, even women reporting lifetime monogamy have a high risk for HIV infection. Partner reduction should be coupled with efforts to place tools in the hands of sexually active women to reduce their risk of contracting HIV.

 

Article can be accessed on-line here in PDF format.

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Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy PDF Print E-mail
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AUTHOR: WHO and UNAIDS
DATE: 2006
PUBLISHER: WHO and UNAIDS

A new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) shows that the number of people on HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries more than tripled to 1.3 million in December 2005 from 400 000 in December 2003. Charting the final progress of the "3 by 5" strategy to expand access to HIV therapy in the developing world, the report also says that the lessons learned in the last two years provide a foundation for global efforts now underway to provide universal access to HIV treatment by 2010. Progress in treatment scale-up, while substantial, was less than initially hoped. While the new report found no systematic bias against women in ART access, rates of coverage for women varied. In some countries, more women receive treatment; in others, more men. One notable area of concern is access to therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, which remains unacceptably low. Between 2003 and 2005, fewer than 10% of HIV-positive pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis before or during childbirth.

Article can be accessed on-line here in PDF format.

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The Contribution of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services To The Fight Against PDF Print E-mail
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AUTHOR: I. Askew and M. Berer
DATE: 2003
PUBLISHER: Reproductive Health Matters

This paper reviews and assesses the contributions made to date by sexual and reproductive health services to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, mainly by services for family planning, sexually transmitted infections and antenatal and delivery care. It also describes other sexual and reproductive health problems experienced by HIV-positive women, such as the need for abortion services, infertility services and cervical cancer screening and treatment. This paper shows that sexual and reproductive health programs can make an important contribution to HIV prevention and treatment, and that STI control is important both for sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS control. It concludes that more integrated programs of sexual and reproductive health care and STI/HIV/AIDS control should be developed which jointly offer certain services, expand outreach to new population groups, and create well-functioning referral links to optimize the outreach and impact of what are to date essentially vertical programs.


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Access to Care, Treatment and Support (ACTS) PDF Print E-mail
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AUTHOR: The International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW)
DATE: 2004
PUBLISHER: The International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW)

Every year, HIV/AIDS causes the death of an increasing number of women. In 2002 over one million women around the world died of AIDS. Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) could reduce this figure drastically. ART has turned HIV into a much more manageable chronic condition which may no longer be a death sentence. However, ICW is keen to point out that treatment is not just about providing ART; care, support and other medications are also needed for all HIV positive people.

Article can be accessed on-line here.

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